Prevention and control measures of occupational di

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Prevention and control measures for occupational diseases in highway engineering

Occupational Diseases refer to the diseases caused by the rest of enterprises, institutions and individual economic organizations (hereinafter referred to as employing units) due to their exposure to dust, radioactive substances and other toxic and harmful substances in occupational activities

in accordance with the requirements of the law of the people's Republic of China on the prevention and treatment of occupational diseases, the prevention and control of occupational diseases must adhere to the basic goal of "prevention first, prevention and control contact", and implement classified management and comprehensive management

occupational diseases include dust and pneumoconiosis, industrial poisons and occupational poisoning, physical occupational risks and occupational diseases. According to the characteristics of highway and bridge construction, the project lists productive dust, asphalt concrete paving work, noise and work under the premise of high temperature and high humidity as key prevention and control tools, and strives to minimize various occupational risks. The following measures are specially formulated:

1. Cement, fly ash, lime and asphalt are the materials used more in the construction of the project, which are open in the process of transportation, loading and unloading and utilization, Inevitably, dust and toxic and harmful gases will be produced, and the utilization range of excessive dust and toxic paper products inhaled by the human body will be expanded. The smell of harmful gases will cause occupational risks such as systemic toxicity, partial irritation, abnormal reactivity, carcinogenicity, pneumoconiosis, among which pneumoconiosis is the most serious. In view of the above occupational risks, all units and projects should do the following when organizing construction:

1) when the amount of cement is large, cans should be used as much as possible, the spraying assembly should be effective when mixing and feeding, and during lime screening and fly ash mixing, the wind should be avoided as much as possible to increase the amount of dust

2) the location of cement, lime, pulverized coal slag storage yard (warehouse) and asphalt mixing operation address should be placed in the upwind direction of residential areas, living areas, schools, etc., to prevent dust and toxic gases from affecting people's normal life

3) formulate and strictly follow Enron operating procedures to prevent unexpected accidents

4) employees engaged in work related to cement mixing should stop pre job dust prevention and anti-virus knowledge education and training, so that they can be familiar with the occupational risks that will be caused and face them ideologically

5) equip sufficient and qualified labor protection supplies such as dust-proof and gas-proof masks, teach employees to use them accurately, and strengthen supervision and inspection in the process of homework.

6) the project department should organize employees who do homework related to dust and concrete mixing to check their occupational health before, during and after leaving their posts, and make records. Employees who are found to have health violations related to their tasks during the regular inspection should be transferred from the original task post and properly installed

7) according to the machine operation and a series of national health standards, the concentration of dust and toxic gases in the homework environment should be detected on schedule, and the results should be found and handled in time

2. Noise is another risk factor in engineering construction. Many mechanical equipment, such as generators, air compressors, pneumatic drills, mixing stations, loaders, etc., will produce strong noise in the course of work. The risk of noise to human body is, first of all, the risk of improper function of nervous system, cardiovascular system and other organs of the whole body. In view of the above occupational risks, the project department should do the following when organizing the construction:

1) according to the construction characteristics, reasonably organize the construction, and do not place homework from 22:00 to 6 a.m. (except for those who are uninhabited in the field). If it cannot be prevented, it should issue the night construction permit and install the notice of foreigners

2) when installing strong noise equipment such as air compressors, generators, electric saws, pneumatic drills, etc. on the construction plane, reasonably select the location, adopt the isolation method of care, and reasonably place the homework to increase the dispersion of strong noise

3) in the regular physical examination, the employees who are in the noise homework should focus on stopping the hearing examination, and the employees with serious hearing loss should be transferred from the original task post and properly installed

4) the operating staff should stop the regular maintenance of the equipment and machinery, and protect them in time to keep them in excellent task condition

5) employees who are in the noise homework should be equipped with ear plugs and other protective equipment, and teach them to use them accurately, and supervise and check them in the process of homework

6) reform the sound source and landing noise. Through technological reform, it is the basic method to reform the vocal object into a non vocal or low sounding object

7) the mechanical equipment exceeding the noise limit shall be expanded in time upon request. "In recent years,

3. Occupational diseases caused by abnormal climate have been listed in the national occupational diseases catalogue as follows: Central Bureau; decompression sickness (acute decompression sickness occurs after diving lessons), high altitude disease (an idiopathic disease under high altitude hypoxia environment) 。 In view of the above occupational risks, each project department should consider:

L) according to the climate characteristics, arrange the construction time, start work early and finish work late, and avoid the noon when the temperature is the highest, for example. Allocate staff fairly, and it is strictly forbidden to continue studying for a long time

2) the project department shall purchase heatstroke prevention and cooling articles, drugs and drinks, and distribute them to employees in time. Cash is not allowed to replace heatstroke prevention and cooling articles

3) organize employees to stop learning about the safety knowledge of high-temperature homework and grasp the basic rescue knowledge

4) when employees have dehydration, heatstroke and other environment, they should be rescued in time without delay

5) for underwater homework, staff with good health and rich experience should be selected, and special personnel should be placed to stop monitoring and maintain contact between shore and underwater staff

6) for employees engaged in altitude homework, it is necessary to select healthy staff, equip medical staff and equipment required, and strengthen regular health inspection

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